Fancy Discrepancies

Here I list some unexpected scientific results in recent years, which I find very interesting. It is highly incomplete, if you have other suggestions, drop me an e-Mail.

2019.01: What are Fast Radio Bursts?
There are millisecond high-energetic bursts of radiowave light being observed for the first time in 2017. Most of the bursts happen only one time, never to be repeated. In 2012, the first unperiodically repeating FRB has been observed. In 2019, a new observational side called CHIME has started their observations, and report (using data from calibration runs!) first observation of a second repeating FRB source, in addition to 12 other FRBs. Hopefully this new instrument can help finding the source of this unexpected observations.

2018.03: Gravitational Wave Echos from Black Holes
If event horizons have special structure, one would expect echos in gravitational waves. This is not predicted by General Relativity. Indication of these echos have maybe been observed: See Quanta and PRD paper, and earlier Nature News.

2018.02: Neutron decay time vary whether its in a bottle or beam.
See Quanta and Science paper.

2017.08: Investigation of Dark Matter via Gravitational Lensing and Planck Satellite contradict each other
See Nature News article. Gravitational waves could help, as an independent method for measureing Hubble’s constant, as shown in this Nature paper.

2017.07: Proton Mass measurement disagrees with CODATA by 3 sigmas
See the PRL article and Science News

2017.06: Star disappears – but apparently not via supernova (“failed supernova”).
See the youtube and NASA.

2017.06: Two reviews on discrepancies at LHC
Editorial in Nature, Flavour-changing neutral currents making and breaking the standard model, A challenge to lepton universality in B-meson decays

2017.06: 7sigma discrepancy at hyperfine-structure measurement of Bismuth
See Nature Communications article.

2017.06: 3.4 sigma sigma deviation from Standard Model for Lepton Universality
See Conference Talk and LHCbarticle.

2017.06: Discrepancy of b-quark production at LHCb with measurements at 13TeV and QCD calculations
See PRL.

2016.11: More myons from Cosmic Rays than expected
See PRL and Viewpoint

2016.11: Hubble-constant measurements are inconsistent
Acceleration of Universe is 8% faster than expected. See youtube, Science and Nature.

2016.10: DAMA (DArk MAtter) finds annual oscillation
See Nature.

2016.09: 2.1 sigma violation of Branching Ratios at LHCb
Beauty-Quark decay asymmetric for myon and tauon. See Nature and PRL.

2016.08: 6.8 sigma violation of decay of excited berrylium
See PRL experiment, PRL theory and Nature, and a detailed analysis at particlebites.

2016.08: CP violation in neutrino oscillation
Apparently, oscillations are different for Neutrinos and Antineutrinos. See Quanta.

2016.07: Unexpected very high-energetic radio bursts
Apparently, oscillations are different for Neutrinos and Antineutrinos. See Nature. Updated: Located but still unexplained.

2016.02: Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum discrepancy
Locally: 4 sigma deviation from SM; globally: 2 sigma. See PRL.

2016.02: Kepler telescope finds short, nonperiodic brightness reductions of up to 22%, unclear interpretations
See Wikipedia and PRL (giving a possible interpretation due to intrinsic critical processes) for Tabby’s Star.

2015.12: ATLAS: 2.5sigma global statistic for a 2TeV decay in WZ channel
See Journal of High Energy Physics.

2015.12: Proton Size Puzzle
Apparently the proton is 4% smaller than expected, which has been observed with myonic hydrogen in 2010, with improved measurements in (which constituted to a 7 sigma deviation from CODATA values). Also myonic deuterium indicates a smaller proton radius, as shown in 2016. Very recent cryogenic electronic hydrogen measurements indicate a similar discrepancy from CODATA value and agree with the myonic value; the discrepancy seem to stem from an unnoticed systematical effect in form of quantum interferences.